Obstetrics is a medical specialty dealing with the care of a woman before and during pregnancy and childbirth. Most obstetricians are also gynecologists.
Gynecologists perform evaluations and screenings to meet health needs specific to women. Gynecological services include Pap smears, fertility evaluations, family planning, treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, care for menstrual difficulties and menopause.
Maternal-fetal medicine specialists work to obtain the best possible outcomes during high-risk pregnancies, providing support for women with high blood pressure, abnormal bleeding, cardiac problems, diabetes, trauma and premature delivery risks. These specialists also provide 3D/4D ultrasound imaging, in vitro diagnoses and fetal therapy.
Endocrinologists treat disorders of the endocrine system (glands) and its specific secretions called hormones. This includes metabolic and hormonal imbalances, cholesterol disorders, menopause symptoms and osteoporosis. The most common illnesses associated with the endocrine system are diabetes and hypothyroidism.
Reproductive endocrinologists focus on the ways these systems affect reproduction in women and men, addressing issues such as hormonal imbalances and fertility problems.